” History of sunuwar kirant and their culture “
By Chandra Prakash Sunuwar
Dhobighat, Lalitpur, Kathmandu
According to Sanskrit literature and mythology, Kathmandu valley was huge lake where Naga used to live. Legend has it that the Kathmandu valley was once a large lake surrounded by mountains. It was known as Nag Hirat(Tank of serpents). As Nagas or magical snake beings were said to guard treasure lying at the bottom of the lake. There was no human habitats, around the hill of valley Kiranti hunter used to hunt. According to Mahavarata lord Siva himself went to Nepal disguising himself as Kirant hunter and hunting in Kathmandu hill later lord Manju Shree came to Kathmandu from China-Tibet. He saw god Mahadeva meditating on lotus of Kathmandu lake so he worship and greet Mahadeva and cut the Chovar hill to pass the water. When all water passed through Chovar Hill, Gopal and Mahispal people came to settle and rule. Neolithic tools found in the Kathmandu Valley indicate that people have been living in the Himalayan region for at least 9,000 years. It appears that a people who were probably of Tibeto-Burman Kiranti. They were living and hunting since ancient time in valley which is mentioned in most of the ancient Hindu literature including kiranti chronicle, mythology and folklore. Though very little is known about the early history of Nepal, legends and documented references, like the following, reach back to the first millennium BCE:
The epic Ramayana, which dates from an era before the Mahabharata, states that Mithila, currently known as Janakpur in Nepal, is the birth place of goddess Sitaand there is Siva Dhanus(Bow of lord Siva) still we can see in temple of Dhanusha which the story of Dhanusha is mentioned in Ramayana. Also, the presence of historical sites, e.g. Valmiki(kirant)Ashram, indicates the presence of Sanatana(eternal) Hindu culture in Nepal at that period and also that time Nepal used to call Kirant Deshe.
The epic Mahabharatamentions the Kiratas among the inhabitants of Nepal. Kirati king Yalamber had the dubious honour of being slain in the battle of the Mahabharata, in which gods and mortals fought alongside each other. Legend credits him with meeting Indra, the lord of heaven, who ventured into the Valley in human guise. One of the very famous kirant king Bhagadatta son of Narkasura of Pragjyotishapur(Assam) took Kuruchetra war and formed two very mighty battalion of Cinas and Kiratas. Battalion of yellow race. Another Tripuri Kiranti king Trilochana is also seems taking part of this mythological war. Apart from that there is uncountable Kirant kings were seems taking part in war which we can’t mention all of those you can see in my another article we kirant mongol race. They were also mentioned in Ramayana in Ajodhya Kanda’s Sarga 15 section, with their hair tied up in knots, shining like gold and pleasant to look upon, bold enough to move under water, terrible, veritable tiger-men. According to ancient Sanskrit literature not only Nepal but all country of Himalayan range belongs to Kirant territories.
According to some of the chronicles the successors of Nepal sage the Gopalcow herd family whose names often end in Gupta and are said to have ruled for some 491 years but Wright, a British Surgeon in British Residence, writes that eight Gopala rulers ruled this kingdom for 521 years. Their First king was Bhuktaman. They are said to have been followed by the “Buffalo-herder Dynasty”, established by an Indian Rajputnamed Bhul Singh but according to many historian they were not Indian Rajput but another group of Kirata or local mongoloid people because that time Aryan migration was not happened. Aryan migration only happen very late time of Nepalese history. They might be present day of Newars who were pure mongoloid kirata in past but after century’s of inter-culturizations make them mixed race. Still they are given name according to their job like who do the job of Tama(copper) are called Tamrakar, same thing who work in paddy field are called Jyapu. Another mongoloid people still live around Kathmandu who are called Gopali and they claim they were descendant of Gopal dynasty. Same thing there is Sing surname in Newar clan they might be Mahispal Sings. The Name of the magical or Ahir dynasty kings were Basa Simha, Jayamati Ayamati Simha, Bhuban Simha etc.
Inscriptions found on archaeological stoneworks, which list mostly the dates and commissioners of these constructions, also communicate royal edicts, religious Mantras or historical notes sometimes and, through the corroboration of local myths with such evidence is available as valuable for history of Nepal. The first inscription with the name of the king Mandeva and date 386 (464 c) was found in front of the Temple of Changunarayan near Bhaktapur. The name of four kings as Brishadeva, Shankaradeva, Dharmadeva and Mandeva are inscribed in the pillar inscription of Changunarayan. A people prior to the Licchavihave been identified, known as Kirata.
Nepal ‘s recorded history began with the kirantis, who arrived in the 7th or 8th century BCE from the east where they used lived around Yollung River nearby Dudh Koshi at that time. They were doughty warriors, deft archers, hunters and very famous for art of warfare and also very good sheep farmers and fondness of liquor, carrying long knives Khukuri. The Kirants ruled for about 1225 years (800 BCE-300 CE), their reign had a total of 29 kings during that time but according to Kiranti chronicle there is 34 Kiranti kings. Many different scholar have different opinion about their period of ruling but most of them firmly believed that Kirant dynasty ruled Nepal from 3102 B.C. to 7th century A.D. and after that around 3rd century A.D (250 A.D.), Licchavi or Lichchhavis dynasty finally took over civilization of Kathmandu valley-Chronological history of Nepal recorded that Gautama Buddha visited Kathmandu valley during the reign of Kiranti king Jitadasti. He was the 7th dynasty of Yalamber; Yalamber established his kingdom around 3102 B.C. Their first and best remembered king was Yalamber, who finds a reference in the epic Mahabharata. Kiranti are Mongoloid race. Northern part of Nepal and India including Sikkim, Bhutan, Kumaon, Indus civilization and Assam were the cradle of their civilization. They were also known at that time as northern mountaineers or ranger of jungle because of their dwelling in the nook and corners of the hills and mountain. Expert says they were also original tribes in Deccan plateau of India. Historians have agreed that there were 29 rulers of the Kirant dynasty. They were:
(1) Yalambar, (2) Pari, (3) Skandhar, (4) Balamba, (5) Hriti, (6) Humati, (7) Jitedasti, (8) Galinja, (9) Oysgja, (10) Suyarma, (11) Papa, (12) Bunka, (13) Swawnanda, (14) Sthunko, (15) Jinghri, (16) Nane, (17) Luka, (18) Thor, (19) Thoko, (20) Verma, (21) Guja, (22) Pushkar, (23) Keshu, (24) Suja, (25) Sansa, (26) Gunam, (27) Khimbu, (28) Patuka, (29) Gasti.
Later, Asoka the famous Mauryan ruler of India visited Kathmandu valley in 3rd century B.C. (250 BC) during the reign of 14th king of Kirant dynasty-Sthunko. At that time Nepal was known as Kirati Desa(land of Kirat ). The history have recorded that Asoka visited Kathmandu valley including Lumbini, birthplace of Gautam Buddha. He visited because of its famous reputation as sacred place. He left unmistakable footprint by marrying his daughter Charumati to Devapala Kirant. A former town of Devpatan near Pasupatinath is formed in his memory by Charumati and later she built Charumati Vihar in Chabahil near Gokarna forest. Gorkarna used to be the capital of Kiranti kings though due to political condition of that time the capital was often shifted around. Asoka built four Stupas at four points in Patan. During the time when he visited the valley Buddhism had already flourished. Licchavi had their capital at Godavari at the foot of Pulchauki Danda(Hill). When last kirant king Gasti was defeated then glory of Kirant era in Kathmandu valley is gone but they regrouped and formed another mighty Kiranti kingdom in Banepa. It had boarder from Sanga Bhanjyang kathmandu west to Sikkim in east. This kingdom remain till twenty years but later divided into three Kirant kingdom with the different kings. They were Wallo kirant, Majh kirant, Pallo kirant.
(1) Wallo kirant means Sunuwar, (2) Majh kirant means Rai, and (3) Pallo kirant means Limbu
Among them wallo Kirant had boarder from Sanga Bhanyang west kathmandu to Dudh Koshi in east. First king of wallo kirant was king Binicha. He was such mighty king and had power of wishful death only. According to myth he had hidden Tupi(long hair in middle of the head) without cutting this he would not die this was his secrecy and famous for magic and art of warfare. He was master of medicine known as medicine Guru and such fierce fighter of Budi Milu(sword). According to myth still Binicha king and queen wander around kirant land Bhuji Kotgaun and Bindra Ban(Tambe jungle). Then after other kings and queens were as follows.
(1) Mafai Rani Mafai Raja, (2) Golma Rani Golma Raja, (3) Chuphai Rani Chuphai Raja, (4) Kalo Rani Kalo Raja, (5) Hupin Rani Hupin Raja, (6) Thaku Rani Thaku Raja, (7) Gosai Rani Gosai Raja, (8) Naisa Rani Naisa Raja, (9) Chai Rani Chai Raja, (10) Kuse Rani Kuse Raja, (11) Dewla Rani Dewla Raja, (12) Thadi Rani Thadi Raja, (13) Falsi Rani Falsi Raja, etc.
Still Sunuwar kiranti people worship all of their kings which is mentioned by Nakso, Paibo, Gyaymi, and Mundum. Unfortunetly all of the related kiranti document has been destroyed by past regime of Nepal in purpose of destroying all the kiranti history and they lost their majesty. But fortunately still we have fort, temple and palace of wallo kiranti which couldn’t destroy by our enemy. I would like to mention about two of our kiranti kings temple which is still survived as fossils and worshiped by kirantis.
There is temple of Hupin Kalo Hopo or Kalo Raja and Kalo Rani Sunuwar kiranti king and queen in Bhuji. He was one of the greatest legendary successor king after king Binicha who had kingdom in Bhuji Kotgaun in Ramchap district. Every day Sunuwar kiranti devotee and other races as well go to worship in temple Kalo Hopo for blessing. He was king during the Malla era who were ruling in Kathmandu Valley. Wallo kiranti Sunuwar had fears battle with the Malla king who came to attack wallo kirant and build palace in Dolakha. Still there is many many wallo kiranti fort, graveyard and palace which I mentioned in my another article “we kirant mongol race”. Still there is myth and folklore how wallo kiranti Sunuwar repeal the attack from Malla king. Still there is talked among people how Sunuwar kiranti fired the gun from Namdu to Dolakha and laid trap and killing Mallas shooting arrows beyond Tama koshi river so Malla couldn’t cross the border line from Tama Koshi. That’s why it is mentioned in history Malla had only boarder till Tamakoshi in east. Population of Sunuwar kiranti seems least than Rai and Limbu but they were remain as boarder or shield of kiranti region because without winning the wallo kirant you can’t go to majh kirant and pallo kirant so these two kirant majh kirant and pallo kirant always remain untouched. When the Sunuwar kiranti died in battle they used to bring in special place for soldier to burry present day of Chyane which is in Dolakha district purely inhabitant by the Sunuwar kiranti. Still Sunuwar people of Chyane worship for their dead spirit burning many different essence like Sundhupi, Chenchen dhupi, Koro dupi and offer Trisul in nowadays place is called Trisule which is not far from Chyane, etc. There is say ancient wallo kirant buried their precious treasure(Gaddhan) in Dev Gaira in Rasnalu in Ramechhap district. This place is fully covered by huge rocks and rubbles people believe which is guarding by huge Kali Naga(black snake). Still there is festival happen in month of July in night. This Sunuwar king and queen Kalo Rani Kalo Raja are worshiped in time of full moon. It’s very difficult to make him happy so he is offered with the crown made by the gold and silver. Many different type and colour of clothes, Jama, Pagari, Khukuri, Sword, bow and arrow, many different type of precious ornaments like diamond, coral and pearl including trident and bell made by copper if possible. He is also offered sacrifice of cock, hen, pegion, eggs many different type of delicious royal food and for Kalo Rani need many different kind of ornaments, perfume, essence and clothes. If they are happy then all kiranti land become safe, peace and rich. You get proper partner for marriage and will blessed birth of son and daughter whatever you wish. Number of domestic animal will be increase in their number. This is what the Sunuwar kiranti devotee believe. Many historian believed ancient kirant which is directly descendant of Yalamber went to live in between Sunkoshi and Dudh koshi which is clearly land of wallo kiranti Sunuwar. Bahing Rai, Sunuwar and Rumdali Rai were same clan in past because they have more than 90% similar in their language and culture.
Chai is another wallo kiranti king he is known as Hopo Sikari Chai. Hopo means king in Sunuwar language. He has temple in top of the hill named Tambe surrounded by dence forest. Every year in month of July there is huge festival happen. Many people go to worship this Sunuwar king. He was hunter as well so he shoot the arrow and lay trap and put Liso(a kind of glue made from local plant named Kel) in purpose of trapping the birds) in eye of people if they show disrespect in jungle and kirant land so if people became sick of eye they worship and offer white and red colour of cock, many different colourful clothes, Trisul and Ghanta(trident and bell) to this Sunuwar king Sikari Chai Hopo. It is believed he is guarding the gold, copper, iron, animal and jungle of Tambe Hill. This Tambe is very rich for mineral and wild animals. He considered eye of Sunuwar kiranti land as well so his temple is on top of the hill so he can see any enemy coming towards kiranti land in intention of invading then enemy will be punished with making blind. He used to ruled in Bhuji Kotgaun so far this is mythological and archaeological place of Sunuwar kings if we go through proper research.
Kiranti Sunuwar culture and their tradition
Sunuwar kirant are called Duwal Bandhi Sikari that means Hunter and guardians of jungles and earth so these Sunuwar people mostly offer sacrifice for their deity. They are Bali Pujak.
Folsyandar or Chandi Puja
The Sunuwar Kirat follow Kirat Mundhum or Mukdum. Their holy book is the Mundhum also known as the Kirat Veda. Kirant Mundhum is normally orally practice because this is consider very holy like secret Mantras. Mundhum mention how the universe and creatures created by god. Kirat Sunuwar people worship nature and ancestors, animism and shamanism, believing in a their primeval ancestors, Chandi Devi. Some other names for festival Folsyandar by other kiranti clan like Rai, Limbu, and Yakkha which they say Sakela, Sakle, Toshi, Sakewa, Saleladi Bhunmidev, Chyabrung, Yokwa.
Folsyandar is greatest Sunuwar kiranti religion and they celebrate with great enthusiast gathering all together. They worship since morning, clean the houses, prepare many different kind of delicious Sunuwari food and delight like Chamre, Ayeri, Kudha, Lopsyo Simi, Gormali, Auphu Babar, Auphu walsyo, Fulaura, Syoble, Jilil Chirs Syoble, Walsyo Rebe, Sor Wank, Jirma Syam, etc.
They have two main festivals: Folsyandar Uvauli, during plantation season; and Folsyandar Udhauli, in the time of the harvest. In another word this festival celebrate in time of Ubhauli during Baisakh (April/May), as it is the start of farming and cultivation time. It is celebrated for 15 days which starts from Baisakh Purnima and Folsyandar Udhauli celebrate during the Mangshir (Nov/Dec) as thanks giving to nature for providing them with good crops, as it is the time for harvesting. Therefore, the festival is also known as “Bhumi Puja”. They copy and try to perform graceful dance of all animal of earth even the trees and wind how it flow but many of these are disappeared. The very famous Chandi dances are, (1) Kasya Sil (porcupine dance), (2) Ramb Dwacha Sil (Buffalo dance),(3) Dhobni Chib Sil (Dhobini Chari dance), (4) Killo Sil (Chanchar chara dance),(5) Mundhum Salak Sil,(6) Wan Sil (Bhalu dance),(7) Naso Khi Gatik Sil,(8) Lan Gacha Sil, (9) Deswali Sil, (10) Myasyo Sil,(11) Jasi Dhukum Sil,(12) Aum Dhobni Sil,(13) Suro Gaso Chacha Sil, etc
During the Chandi dance Dholes dance with being circle, in centre of pole there is Sundhukur(golden dove) tied up it’s legs with the upside down. It’s neck would be cut and turn off the skin and bring down to the bottom of neck without killing. According to Mundhum they are punishing it because it was gift given by Chandi Devi for her devotee Kirat but it disappear later when kirata brother quarrel themselves who to take in time of migration in different way. Till this Sun Dhukur remain the Kirata never gonna be poor when he disappear kirata start to loose everything their kingdom, weath, respect, glory, etc. so they are punishing him symbolising Sun Dhukur.
When they dance use to beat Dhol in sixteen different way in different time and there is too many different type of Dhol as well like; (1) Syari dhol, (2) Foka dhol, (3) Wash dhol, (4) Pothi dhol, (5) Bhale dhol, (6) Naso dhol, (7) Shiri dhol, (8) Giri dhol, (9) Syanma dhol, (10) Basyeri dhol, (11) Khayer dhol, (12) Suri dhol, (13) Maulo dhol and many more.
This Sunuwar kiranti are not only brave, rich in culture and tradition they are also world famous for welcoming the guest. If anyone stranger is going to see Chandi and he is taking part every Sunuwar person they ready to invite them as guest to join in their feast and drink. Actually it sounds folk tale but this is real exist. Every customer is surprised with their kindness and genereoucity. They view customer as divine presence.
Surom is goddess of crops, paddy and all foods she is like Laxmi. They are sixteen sister Surom goddess who are protecting all crops. If they are happy you can harvest much crops and your treasure of food always full. If Surom is not happy then you will be poor there is no money and food in your house. They are also guardians of your crops and treasury of food. They detect the thief and punish them. Their names are as follows;
(1) Khome Surom, (2) Dewa Surom, (3) Egi Surom, (4) Kelo Surom, (5) Melo Surom, (6) Nadi Surom, (7) Padi Surom, (8) Likhacho Surom, (9) Kuli Surom, (10) Muli Surom, (11) Thangra Surom, (12) Daini Surom, (13) Dabla Surom, (14) Duma Surom, (15) Badem Surom, (16) Kothe Surom
Nimlo is god of fruits. If you worship Nimlo your fruits farming will grow and you can be benefited harvesting plenty of fruits. They are also sixteen brothers who guard the fruits tree.
This is very ancient and expensive religion so this one is dead or disappeared. This is like Koti Hom Puja you have to sacrifice 360 animals of earth and all type of grains and essence. This one is not only expensive but also horrified because of flow of blood of animals. In past it used to long last more then 6 months. You can’t do by yourself has to be done by community. This ancient religion of kirata was stolen by Aryan and put in their Vedic Hindu fold so they start to say Koti Hom actually Koti Hom or Bali Puja Bidhi was kiranti Bidhi(way).
Sed is Naga or serpent king which they guard the Sunuwar kiranti house sitting by the door. This Sed is white colour of gigantic snake who lived by the door with coiling, Mundhum Pujari(Naso), Paibo, Gyaymi, Baidang, Lama and Aghori Baba can easily see when they come in house. He is guardian of house and temple and he save from the drought happening in country.
This is god of fire you have to respect in kitchen when you cook, shoudn’t have to do dirty, piss and spit on fire. If you worship Fush god then your home and family would be always safe and happy there is no fire caught otherwise he will bring pain on your eye, body and domestic animals. Ancient time kirata worship Fush(Agni) before they make their bow and arrow by the help of Fush Dev it will be mighty, accurate and you will win the battle. Ancient Sunuwar kirant when they make bow and arrow they treat this as special ceremony and worship many kiranti god. They used to make from too many different type of Bamboo for different part like Taru Bans, Gopa Bans, etc. They used to apply different type of bone, horn and glue to support bow so it won’t be loose and break in the time of using. Kiranti were Guru of bamboo they used to make everything from this like eating bowl, drinking bowl, etc. Bamboo is called oriental dream. Bamboo and oriental people are inseparable like Chinese, Japanese, Vietnamese and Korean they have question what the bamboo can’t do? Instead of question what can you do by bamboo. It can clearly proved kiranti and oriental people were same in past.
Chegu puja is one of the most important worship which is done during November and December invoking Yabre Gubre (dead ancienster) and other deity. This puja is done for peace of their ancestors spirit who are sheltering in temple, monasteries, someone’s houses without going proper destination haven and asking for blessing of good life. They prepared Tormas rice cones and lots of newly prepared wine from rice, millet, barley, wheet and corn. Sunuwar Nakso, Poibo and Gyaymi took part in ceremony. The ceremony begins with burning essence and the word Pwank-Pwank-Pwank created by joining two leaps and start to say Sang-Sang-Sang-Sangso Chuplo Hopo, Duplo Hopo, and so on.
Apart from that Sunuwar worship many other festival and deity like; Sagun puja, Kansh puja, Chegu Puja, Fush Puja, Waash Lacha, Phache Gyaimi, Dash Gyaimi, Aita Bare Dhamini Dhami, Nak Debi Puja, Ghari Bhume Puja, Toshi Puja, Sime Bhume Puja, Naugi Puja, Meselmi Puja, Ragin Gyami Puja, Basu Puja, Gijo Pija, Phol Puja, Sida Puja, Kati Gyami Puja, Podesh Puja, Wash Thelu Puja, Kalpip Puja, Ras Nash Puja, Yabre Puja, Basu Puja, etc.
When they kill the pig specially in Dashai festival. They must call for Nakso Sunuwar kiranti priest who process all ceremony you can’t just kill by yourself. First Nakso spray rice saying some sacred Mantras because according to myth in very beginning of earth no body human being could kill the wild boar so one kirata hunter worship mother goddess of earth and he release arrow fortunately wild board fall down and died so since then they worship their ancestor in special ceremony when they want to kill pig. Then Nakso kill pig with long Nakso knife other people have no allowed to touch that knife. When they kill pig then they separate all of their different organs like Ghati ko Mala (neck part of meat) cut around whole in two pieces same thing tail part in three strip because there is all different type of Yabres (ancestor) who eat different part of organs like some eat eye, some eat tail and many different parts have their own owner. They cooked all of these including liver, heart, langue and blood in huge bowl is called Karahi. They prepare very nice Tin pane Raksi(wine) as well. Nakso ready for worship he lay 360 Sapsi Safa(a kind of holy leaf) and he put all those meat on it. Cooked whole head and big bowl of just prepared hot wine sit on middle of Safa then Nakso start ceremony saying sacred word Sang Sang Sang Sangso. This is quite similar with Chinese tradition when they worship their ancestor they as well offer whole cooked pig meat on them. Nakso is not normal priest like Aryan priest he is full of spiritual power like when the Nakso and Gyaymi, Poibo have sometime spiritual battle then always Nakso win if Poibo or Gyaymi is not Janda(very powerful). When they do spiritual battle Nakso start to lay Sapsi Safa(sacred leaf use by Nakso) and take him/her in unknown destination he/she only can see Sapsi Safa and walk on it but underneath there is Rakta Kunda(lake of blood) so Poibo and Gyaymi couldn’t come out without the help of other Nakso. He can take their soul in Suri Dhoka(unknown dark room) and make captive. Same thing he launch too many Ban(arrow) one of those is Duma Ban arrow from porcupine’s throne it comes with spinning, deadly and such swift it goes through the heart of Poibo or Gyaymi so they will die on spot where they are dancing or walking. If the Poibo or Gyaymi is powerful then still they have to show another Taro(target) to divert it like either someone other or their own children, family or relatives so to Tussle with the Nakso is very risky and dangerous for them. Technically they are enemy to each other for their spiritual power. There is too many different kind of Nakso like Mundhum Nakso, Suri Nakso, Auphu Nakso, Phoka Nakso, etc.
Sunuwar kirant people lived in wallo kirant specially in Bank of Sunkosi, Khimti, Likhu, Yolung, Malung and Solung and almost all eastern nepal scattering in little number apart from there they also live in many different part of India like Sikkim, Darjeeling, Nagaland, Deharadun and Silang and also they live in Burma, Fiji and Hong Kong and United kingdom recently. Also they live in western Nepal in very little number in Makwanpur area like Tistung, Chitlang, Khaplung, Vimphedi, Nibuwatar, Dhingan, Phaparbari, Dhiyal, Chatiban and Hetauda. According to history First of all the name of Surmadan Sunuwar Jijicha from Rasnalu went there to settle down around 150 years ago.
Their clans names
(1) Mulicha, (2) kormocha, (3) Sokucha, (4) Rapacha, (5) Laspacha, (6) kamacha, (7) yata, (8) Bujicha, (9) Rupacha, (10) Durbicha, (11) Jijicha, (12) Deppacha, (13) phaticha, (14) syusyucha, (15) syochul, (16) Katicha, (17) Nomlicha, (18) Linocha, (19) kyuiticha, (20) Digarcha, (21)Kyompaticha, (22) Wangde, (23) Bigyacha, (24) Thangracha, (25) Dashucha, (26) Gongrocha, (27) Bramlicha, (28) Lokucha, (29) Jespucha, (30) Rawacha, (31) Jyaticha, (32) Blache, (33) Binicha, (34) Yelungcha, and other many more.
Sunuwar kiranti they buried their death body as tradition but nowadays they cremated their body as well because they came in influence of Hindu culture which they got Bahun Bachi from king Girvan Yuddha on the Nepalese year 1882 BS, Magh 3 Gate. They are also called Jimi and Mukhiya as well.
In one word kiranti Sunuwar’s occupation, features, tradition can be describe saying like;
Job – Warrior
Family – Tiger
Color – Golden yellow
Sacres weapon – Bow and arrow, arrow, Khukuri, Trisul(which they used as spear this one is more convenient then spear because it can lock the opponents weapon during battle. This is not only offensive but defensive as well hence kiranteswore Mahadeva seems carrying giant Trisul.)
Sacred flower – Totola
Sacred colour – White
As being warrior race they go to join in British Gurkha Army, Indian Gurkha Army primarily if they fail then at least try to join in Nepalese Army but nowadays there is window of opportunity for employment in foreign country so they try to go to Japan, Korea, European country and other developed country for earning. Of course they do farming as well, as being Jimi land lord. Kiranti people were certainly oldest people in earth so there is no doubt first they were the owner of land and earth. They used to hunt and gather food since beginning of earth. They have great respect on nature and they treat accordingly. Aryan people trapped them in their conspiracy so nowadays they are being kick out from their own mother land. They are using too many dirty policy to capture indigenous tribal land. Chetri and Bramhin came as refugee in Nepal so start to settle wherever they get land from Tarai to Himal. They are getting majority in their number but we are in minority this tradition is still keep going on. Specially, they are holding governmental position since 200 years when Shah dynasty came in power. They are the authority of Nepal and their foreign policy is not balance. Northern boarder with China they restrict when there is only four Naka(transit) very small in number because they are mongoloid origin but contrary in southern boarder with India they open no need visa all land is flat everywhere is open boarder no wired fences still more then 16 Nakas(transit) where the official work happen in boarder so millions of Aryan migration is happening everyday and we mongoloid kiranti are being minority and endanger of disappear. We can’t relax and enjoy such vast open boarder because Nepal is too small and India is too big they can swallow our identity. Nepal kirant Deshe was so beautiful and people were so nice and simple like natural water such clean and peace so many Aryan people from India came for to seek peace that’s why it is called in Sanskrit the land of solitary meditation and penance(Tapovan), Land of Truth(Satyawati), the ladder of salvation(Muktisopan) by this Aryan people. They pretended they came for meditate in search of freedom we gave them shelter but later killed their own owner. Kiranti mongoloid people their number is always decreasing due to many reason. They were died more than 30 Thousands only in first and second world wars. How many they died in Indian wars, war with Rana regime and too many other wars which was putting trap by this Hindu government in purpose of how to decrease their number in past. If there is demon and human lived together what do you think human will survive no doubt answer is clear the word ‘NO’. How long we indigenous people of Nepal gonna be in deep sleep like Kumbha Karna. We must fight for our right and motherland otherwise our future descendant will curse us.